During the Middle Ages, a particular style of leather shoe called a turnshoe was worn. The major seam between the sole and the vamp is hidden, extending the life of the shoe and preventing moisture from seeping in through the seam, hence the term, which was given after it was assembled inside out and then turned right-side-out after completion.
Turnshoes were originally made from a single piece of leather that had only one side stitched. Turnshoes typically had one sole (cowhide or bovinae) and one piece of vamp or upper (goat or cowhide or caprinae/bovinae) in the late early and high medieval periods. Additional components, such as doubled soles, were added in the late Middle Ages.
Turnshoes were eventually constructed with outsoles stitched to the rands; later, the welted shoe, which replaced turnshoes at the start of the 16th century, was manufactured by sewing the shoes from the inside out. Welted shoes could be manufactured of much thicker leather because they did not need to be turned inside-out.
The toughness of shoes made from historical patterns might not be sufficient for modern living! They are quite sensitive to gravel, stone, and asphalt. The Middle Ages did not have these floor coverings! As a result, we advise wearing pattens, insoles, or having the shoes retrofitted with rubber soles at the shoemaker of your choosing.