The falcata has a curved and asymmetrical blade, typically single-edged, the outline of which rotates forward in a concave manner before moving back toward the axis of symmetry at the tip. This shape places the center of gravity of the bar approximately halfway up the blade and raises the cutting point closer to the tip, maximizing the power of each cut without throwing it off balance. Sometimes it has grooves on the non-cutting edge that allow to lighten the weight of the weapon, as well as decorations in damascene or coffin, filling the incisions previously made in the blade with silver threads.
The hilt, as characteristic as the blade, is small and single-handed, and is normally offset to one side with respect to the axis of the sword. Its shape hugs the user's hand in a hook-like curve, sometimes reattaching to the blade with a chain or rivet to form a complete guard. It usually has bone or ivory scales and a pommel in the shape of a horse or griffin head.
The shape and disposition of the falcata make it an eminently cutting weapon, a task in which it performs with great efficiency compared to other types of swords. However, the frequent presence of a back edge (the edge of the edge opposite to the main edge, which occupies about the third closest to the tip) in the recovered specimens seems to suggest that it is also possible to use it as a lunge weapon.