When we think of medieval warfare, castles, knights, and swords often come to mind. However, one of the most influential weapons of the era was the longbow. This powerful bow changed the way battles were fought and had a significant impact on medieval history.

The Origins and History of the Longbow

The longbow has been used for thousands of years, but it gained prominence in Europe during the medieval period. It became especially famous in England, where it was a key weapon in many significant battles, such as the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. The longbow was a favorite among English archers for its range, power, and relatively quick rate of fire.

Design and Features

A typical medieval longbow was made from a single piece of wood, usually yew, but sometimes ash, elm, or other hardwoods were used. The bow was shaped to form a D in cross-section, with the flat, wide part facing the archer and the rounded part facing away. This design allowed the longbow to store more energy and deliver more powerful shots than other bows of the time.

Dimensions of the Longbow

The length of a longbow was typically about six feet, though it could vary depending on the height and strength of the archer. The bowstring was made from hemp, flax, or other strong fibers. Arrows used with the longbow were about three feet long, made of wood with iron or steel tips, and feathered for stability in flight.

Longbows in Combat

In combat, the longbow had several advantages. It could shoot arrows over long distances, up to 300 yards or more, allowing archers to strike from a safe distance. Its rate of fire was also impressive; skilled archers could shoot 10 to 12 arrows per minute. This rapid fire could create a deadly rain of arrows, devastating to enemy troops, especially when used in large numbers.

Training and Skill

Using a longbow effectively required a great deal of skill and strength. Archers had to be able to pull the bowstring back, a task that could require over 100 pounds of force. This level of strength and skill meant that archers often started training at a young age. In England, laws were even passed to encourage archery practice.

Impact on Medieval Warfare

The longbow had a profound impact on medieval warfare. It allowed armies to engage enemies from a distance, changing traditional battle tactics. The effectiveness of longbowmen in battles such as Crecy and Agincourt proved the value of archers in military strategy.

Decline and Legacy

The longbow began to decline in use with the advent of gunpowder and firearms in the 16th century. However, its legacy endured. The longbow is remembered as a symbol of the medieval period and is celebrated in historical reenactments and popular culture.


The longbow, with its simple design but powerful impact, was a game-changer in medieval warfare. It not only demonstrated the importance of skill and training in combat but also showed how technology could influence the course of history. The story of the longbow is a testament to the ingenuity and adaptability of medieval society.